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Weird science facts

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Usually, with science homework help you learn some essential facts about life like about forces that work in our world or molecular structure. But it is often very formal and not exciting. What about fun facts that will make science more interesting?

1. Babies have more bones than adults

At birth, babies have approximately 300 bones and cartilage between them. This flexibility allows them to pass through the birth canal, and also allows them to grow quickly. Many bones fuse with age. There are 206 bones in an average adult skeleton.

2. During the summer, the Eiffel Tower can reach 15 cm higher

Thermal expansion is the movement of particles in a substance when it is heated up. This is what is called a thermal expansion. A drop in temperature can cause it to contract. For example, the mercury level in a thermometer will rise and fall as the mercury volume changes with the temperature. This effect is strongest in gases, but it also occurs in liquids and solids like iron. This is why large structures like bridges have expansion joints that allow them to expand and contract without causing damage.

3. The Amazon rainforest produces 20% of Earth’s oxygen

The atmosphere is composed of approximately 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen. There are also small amounts of other gases. Most living organisms on Earth require oxygen for survival. They convert it into carbon dioxide when they breathe. Photosynthesis is a way for plants to replenish oxygen levels on the planet. This process converts carbon dioxide and water into energy and releases oxygen as a byproduct. The Amazon rainforest covers 5.5 million km2 (2.1 million sq miles). It absorbs large amounts of carbon dioxide and cycles significant quantities of oxygen.

4. Some metals explode when they come in contact with water

Certain metals, such as potassium, sodium and rubidium, oxidize (or tarnish) quickly when exposed to oxygen. Dropping them in water can cause explosions. Chemical stability is a goal for all elements. This means that they must have an outer electron shell. Metals are known to lose electrons in order to achieve this. Alkali metals only have one electron in their outer shell, which makes them extremely eager to pass this unwelcome passenger on to another element through bonding. They form compounds with other elements so easily that they can’t exist in their own right.

5. 6 billion tonnes for a teaspoonful of neutron stars

A neutron star is a remnant of a large star that has run out of fuel. A supernova occurs when a dying star explodes, and its core collapses under gravity to form a super-dense neutron star. The staggeringly large solar masses of galaxies or stars are measured by astronomers in solar masses. This is equivalent to 2 x 1030 kg/4.4 x 1030 lbs. The typical neutron star has a mass up to three solar masses. This is compressed into a sphere of approximately ten kilometers (6.2 miles), which results in some of the most dense matter in the universe.

6. Every year, Hawaii moves 7.5 cm closer to Alaska

The Earth’s crust has been split into huge pieces known as tectonic plates. These plates move in constant motion due to currents in Earth’s upper crust. Hotter, denser rock rises and then cools and sinks. This creates circular convection currents that act as giant conveyor belts that slowly shift the tectonic plates. Hawaii is located in the middle Pacific Plate. It slowly drifts north-west towards the North American Plate and back to Alaska. The speed of the plates is similar to how fast our fingernails grow.

7. Chalk is made of trillions upon trillions of microscopic plankton fossils

Coccolithophores are tiny single-celled algae that have been living in the oceans of Earth for over 200 million years. They surround themselves with tiny plates of calcite (coccoliths), which is unlike any other marine plant. Coccolithophores formed in thick layers on ocean floors, covering them with a white ooze. This was just 100 million years ago. The pressure from the ocean floor pushed the coccoliths into rock. This created chalk deposits like the Dover white cliffs. Coccolithophores is just one example of many prehistoric species that are preserved in fossil form. But how can we determine how old they really are? Rock forms in horizontal layers over time. Older rocks are at the bottom, while younger rocks are near the top. Paleontologists can approximate the age of a fossil by studying the rock from which it is found. Based on radioactive elements like carbon-14, carbon dating gives a more precise estimate of a fossil’s age.

8. It will be too hot to sustain life on Earth in 2.3 billion years

The Sun will get brighter and more intense over the next hundreds of millions of year. Temperatures will rise to the point that our oceans will evaporate in just 2 billion years. This will make it impossible for Earthlings to live. Our planet will soon become a desert like Mars. Scientists predict that Earth will eventually be engulfed by the Sun as it grows into a red giant over the next few billion years.

9. Infrared cameras are almost impossible to detect polar bears

The heat that is lost by a subject can be detected using thermal cameras, but polar bears have mastered the art of conserving heat. A thick layer of blubber beneath the skin keeps bears warm. They can withstand even the coldest Arctic days thanks to their dense fur coat.

10. It takes light 8 minutes and 19 seconds to travel from Earth to Sun

Light travels 300,000 km (186,000 miles per second) in space. It takes a lot of time to cover the 150 million kilometres (93,000,000 miles) between us, the Sun, and this speed. Eight minutes is still a lot compared to the five-and-a-half hours required for the Sun’s light to reach Pluto.

11. The human race could be reduced to the size of a sugar cube if all the space in our atoms was removed

Although the atoms that make up our world appear solid, they are actually 99.99999 percent empty space. An atom is composed of a small, dense nucleus, surrounded by electrons and spread over a large area. Because electrons behave like waves, they are particles as well. The crests and the troughs of these waves are what make electrons exist. Instead of being located in a single point, electrons are distributed over multiple probabilities. This is called an orbital. These electrons occupy huge amounts of space.

12. Stomach acid can dissolve stainless steel

The highly corrosive acid hydrochloric acid, which has a pH between 2 and 3, affects the digestion of food. Your stomach lining is also affected by this acid. It secretes an alkali bicarbonate solution to protect itself. It is necessary to replace the lining every day, and it completely renews itself every four.

13. The Earth is a huge magnet

The Earth’s inner core is made up of a sphere filled with solid iron and surrounded by liquid iron. Temperature and density variations create currents in the iron that in turn produces electrical currents. These currents, paired up by the Earth’s rotation, create a magnetic field that is used worldwide by compass needles.

14. Venus is the only planet that can spin clockwise

Our Solar System began as a swirling cloud made of gas and dust. It eventually became a spinning disc with our Sun at its centre. All the planets orbit the Sun in roughly the same direction because of this common origin. They all also spin in the same direction (counterclockwise, if observed from above), except Uranus & Venus. Uranus spins on its back, while Venus spins in the opposite direction. These planetary anomalies are most likely caused by gigantic asteroids that have thrown them off track in the distant past.

15. A flea can accelerate quicker than the Space Shuttle

Jumping fleas can reach heights of eight centimetres (three in) in one millisecond. Acceleration refers to the change in speed over time. It is often measured in ‘gs. One g equals the acceleration caused on Earth by gravity (9.8m/32.2ft per square second). Fleas can experience 100g while the Space Shuttle was able to reach around 5g. This is due to a rubber-like protein that allows it to store and release energy just like a spring.

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What a day! As the Earth spins faster, midnight comes a fraction sooner

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Assuming time feels more tight than at any other time of late, pin it on the upheaval. On 29 June this year, Earth piled up a surprising record: its most limited day since the 1960s, when researchers started estimating the planet’s revolution with high-accuracy atomic clocks.

All things considered, finishes one full turn on its hub at regular intervals. That solitary twist marks out a day and drives the pattern of dawn and nightfall that has molded examples of life for billions of years. Be that as it may, the shades fell almost immediately 29 June, with 12 PM showing up 1.59 milliseconds sooner than anticipated.

The beyond couple of years have seen a whirlwind of records fall, with more limited days being scored up perpetually regularly. In 2020, the Earth turned out 28 of the most brief days in the beyond 50 years, with the most brief of those, on 19 July, shaving 1.47 milliseconds off the 86,400 seconds that make up 24 hours. The 29 June record verged on being broken again last month, when 26 July came in 1.5 milliseconds short.

So is the world accelerating? Over the more extended term – the geographical timescales that pack the ascent and fall of the dinosaurs into the squint of an eye – the Earth is really turning more leisurely than it used to. Wind the clock back 1.4bn years and a day would pass in under 19 hours. By and large, then, at that point, Earth days are getting longer as opposed to more limited, by around one 74,000th of a second every year. The moon is for the most part to fault for the impact: the gravitational pull marginally contorts the planet, delivering flowing contact that consistently eases back the Earth’s rotation.

To keep clocks in accordance with the planet’s twist, the International Telecommunication Union, a United Nations body, has taken to adding periodic leap seconds in June or December – generally as of late in 2016 – really halting the timekeepers briefly so the Earth can get up to speed. The primary jump second was added in 1972. The following open door is in December 2022, in spite of the fact that with Earth turning so quick of late, it is probably not going to be required.

While the Earth is slowing down over the longer term, the circumstance is more chaotic on more limited timescales. Inside the Earth is a liquid center; its surface is a mass of moving landmasses, expanding seas and evaporating glacial masses. The whole planet is enveloped by a thick cover of gases and it wobbles as it turns on its hub. These impact the Earth’s turn, speeding it up or dialing it back, albeit the progressions are essentially imperceptible.

As per Nasa, more grounded breezes in El Niño years can dial back the planet’s spin, expanding the day by a small portion of a millisecond. Tremors, then again, can make the contrary difference. The 2004 seismic tremor that released a tidal wave in the Indian Ocean moved sufficient stone to abbreviate the length of the day by almost three microseconds.

Anything that moves mass towards the focal point of the Earth will accelerate the planet’s pivot, much as a turning ice skater speeds up when they pull in their arms. Land movement that pushes mass outwards from the middle will make the contrary difference and dial back the spin.

What this large number of various cycles meet up to mean for the length of a day is an inquiry researchers are as yet grappling with. Be that as it may, assuming the pattern for more limited days carries on for a really long time, it could prompt requires the first “negative jump second”. Rather than adding one moment to tickers, common time would skirt one moment to stay aware of the quicker turning planet. That thus could have its own outcomes, not least reigniting the discussion about whether, after over 5,000 years, characterizing time by the development of the planet is a thought that has had now is the right time.

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SpaceX eyes a few Starlink launches in July

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A SpaceX drone ship has gone to the sea for the first of up to five Starlink launches planned in July.

Drone ship Just Read The Instructions (JRTI) was towed out of Port Canaveral, Florida on July 2nd, moving setting up SpaceX for its first launch of the second half of 2022. Headed around 664 kilometers (~413 mi) upper east into the Atlantic Ocean, the semi-autonomous modified barge is scheduled to help the Falcon 9 booster recovery portion of SpaceX’s 49th dedicated Starlink launch.

Several postponements and a pad change, launch photographer artist Ben Cooper reports that Starlink 4-21 – one more batch of roughly 53 Starlink V1.5 satellites – is scheduled to launch from SpaceX’s Cape Canaveral Space Force Station (CCSFS) LC-40 cushion no sooner than (NET) 9am EDT (13:00 UTC), give or take, on Thursday, July 7th.

The mission will be drone ship JRTI’s 37th Falcon booster recovery attempt and, assuming that successful, its 34th consecutively successful booster landing since January 2017. Ideally going along with it in one piece will be Falcon 9 B1058, which will become the second sponsor to attempt a 13th orbital-class launch and landing when it takes off with Starlink 4-21 later this week. Hawk 9 B1060 turned into the first liquid rocket booster to finish 13 launches on June 17th.

Starlink 4-21 is the first of up to five Starlink launches purportedly planned July and was initially intended to launch from Kennedy Space Center’s LC-39A pad as soon as June 26th after SpaceX and NASA chose to fundamentally defer a Dragon launch intended to use a similar pad. SpaceX later decided to defer Starlink 4-21 to July 7th and shift it to LC-40 – a move probably intended to let free up Pad 39A for the postponed Dragon’s most recent mid-July launch target.

SpaceX has kept LC-40 perseveringly busy for the first half of 2022 and the pad hasn’t had over three weeks of break between launches since December 2021. It likewise supported consecutive launches on June 19th and 29th, probable explaining Starlink 4-21’s ~10-day delay.

LC-40 will track down no rest in July, all things considered. After Starlink 4-21, Next Spaceflight reports that SpaceX expects to launch Starlink 4-22 and 4-25 from LC-40 or Pad 39A not long after Cargo Dragon’s deferred CRS-25 space station resupply mission takes off around July 14th. On the West Coast, SpaceX will purportedly start launching an entirely different shell of polar-orbiting Starlink satellites with Starlink 3-1 on July 10th and, while improbable after the first mission’s new postponements, Starlink 3-2 before the end of the month.

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Tormenting sound from a black hole permits people to hear the hints of room 240 million light-years away

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The sound, delivered on May 4, is that of a dark opening from the focal point of the Perseus universe bunch, a gigantic space structure that is 11 million light-years across and situated around 240 million light-years from Earth. Cosmologists made the discernible sound by recording the strain waves that the dark opening sent through the bunch’s hot gas. In their unique structure, those waves can’t be heard by the human ear, so researchers extricated the sound waves and increased them by 57 and 58 octaves.

“Here and there, this sonification is not normal for some other done previously,” NASA said in a delivery. “…[The sound waves] are being heard 144 quadrillion and 288 quadrillion times higher than their unique recurrence.”

When knock up to human frequencies, the hints of the dark opening are practically much the same as the cries of an unpleasant phantom or the profound sea calls of a case of whales.

While this specific sound of room is new, NASA has related the Perseus cosmic system bunch with sound starting around 2003. System bunches like Perseus are the biggest gravitationally bound objects known to mankind containing many worlds, monstrous billows of hot gas that arrive at in excess of 180 million degrees Fahrenheit and the consistently secretive dull matter. All of that material makes a mechanism for sound waves to travel.

Alongside delivering the hints of Perseus, NASA researchers have likewise delivered a sonification of one more renowned dark opening situated in Messier 87, or M87.

Dissimilar to Perseus’ dark opening, this one has a far higher pitch, and can best be depicted as surrounding music with light tolls. The perception of the sound that NASA delivered is comparably fantastic, as it contains outputs of the dark opening taken by the Chandra X-beam Observatory, optical light from Hubble Space Telescope and radio waves from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array in Chile. It additionally contains a picture of where the dark opening is found and a picture of a stream that M87 has delivered.

The sound records and perceptions were delivered during NASA’s Black Hole Week from May 2 to 6. During that time, NASA delivered different perceptions and data about dark openings as a feature of a “festival of heavenly items with gravity so extraordinary that even light can’t get away from them.”

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