Scientists in the United States have detected the most elevated amounts of planet-warming carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere since records started.
The Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii, which has followed atmospheric CO2 levels since the late 1950s, on Saturday morning detected 415.26 parts per million (ppm).
It was additionally the first time on record that the observatory estimated a daily baseline above 415 ppm.
The last time Earth’s atmosphere contained this much CO2 was in excess of three million years prior, when worldwide ocean levels were a few meters higher and parts of Antarctica were blanketed in forest.
Wolfgang Lucht, from the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research says “It shows that we are not on track with protecting the climate at all. The number keeps rising and it’s getting higher year after year. This number needs to stabilise.”
Be that as it may, a long way from settling, levels of CO2 – one of a trinity of greenhouse gases produced when fossil fuels are burnt – are climbing always quickly.
Ralph Keeling, chief of Scripps Institution of Oceanography’s CO2 Programme, said the trend would probably continue throughout 2019 – likely to be an El Nino year in which temperatures rise due to warmer ocean currents.
“The average growth rate is remaining on the high end. The increase from last year will probably be around three parts per million whereas the recent average has been 2.5 ppm,” he said.
“Likely we’re seeing the effect of mild El Nino conditions on top of ongoing fossil fuel use.”
The 2015 Paris Agreement calls humankind to obstruct the ascent in Earth’s temperature at “well below” 2 degrees compared with pre-industrial levels, and 1.5C if conceivable.
The most recent four years were the four most sweltering on record and, regardless of the Paris deal and expanding open familiarity with the issue, humankind keeps on breaking its own emissions records, year on year.
Earth’s average surface temperature has effectively expanded 1.0C since pre-industrial times due to man-made emissions.
“All of human history has been in a colder climate than now,” said Lucht.
“Every time an engine runs we emit CO2 and it has to go somewhere. It doesn’t miraculously disappear, it stays in the atmosphere.
“Despite the Paris climate agreement, despite all the speeches and the protests — we are not seeing that we are bending the curve yet,” he added.
While there is some disagreement over what would constitute “safe” atmospheric CO2 levels, there is a broad consensus that 350 ppm – a level surpassed in the late 1980s – would stave off runaway global warming.
“350 ppm is a precautionary value because some of the consequences of being above 400 may still be evolving,” Lucht said.
“But since we’re not on track anyhow, any value that we can manage to stabilise at is a win.”
The 415 ppm threshold was first surpassed earlier this month and has already risen further.
“I’m old enough to remember when passing 400ppm was a big deal,” Gernot Wagner, a research associate at Harvard University, said on Twitter.
“Two years ago we hit 410ppm for the first time. By now, it’s 415ppm. And oh, the increase is increasing at an increasing rate!”
A bird’s-eye view of farm fires in Haryana, Punjab since 2016
Farm fires remain as spread out as before in Punjab and Haryana, but with a gradual reduction in numbers over the last five years, barring 2020, data show.
Satellites detected nearly one lakh fire counts in 2016 in October and November, more than 40 per cent than 2015.
From then on, the counts came down every year till 2020. The number of farm fires last year was 20 per cent lower than 2016, but 60 per cent higher than 2019.
LESS IN NUMBERS, BUT EXTENSIVE IN AREA
The year 2017 recorded a big drop of 32 per cent in stubble burning across Haryana and Punjab, followed by 24 per cent reduction in 2019, an analysis by India Today’s Data Intelligence Unit shows.
That said, stubble-burning events are extensively spread in Haryana and Punjab despite the announcement of Rs. 2,500 an acre bonus for small and marginal farms rejecting the practice. Additionally, Punjab offers incentives to industries for buying stubble.
According to data obtained from NASA satellites, the peak has been recorded in the month of November, especially its first week, for at least the last six years.
The number of stubble burning cases in the first week of November 2016 alone stood at at 34,910, which was almost 77 per cent higher than the previous year. But the counts declined by 60 per cent in the same period of 2017.
However, the stubble-burning number changes every alternate year in the peak period of November, the DIU analysis revealed. In 2020, for instance, fire counts spurt by 60 per cent in the first week of November. In 2021 though, the cases dropped by nearly two per cent compared to the year ago.
FARM FIRES IN 2021
Considering the number of farm fires in the first week of November, the year 2021 so far ranked third with 27,941 stubble burning events after 2016 and 2020.
If the declining trend holds firm, the two states may end up with fewer cases of farm fires in October-November this year.
Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh follow this practice to clear the fields for sowing winter crops from the last week of September to November.
There is brief window of two to three weeks between harvesting paddy and sowing the next crop.
The burning of residue depends on weather and other factors. The phenomenon in a particular period can, therefore, be recorded better through a comparison of total fire events during October and November than through day-to-day incidents.
According to reliable estimates, Punjab alone produces around 200 lakh tonnes paddy stubble. Haryana produces around 70 lakh tonnes of paddy residue every year.
(New source – https://www.indiatoday.in/diu/story/bird-eye-view-farm-fires-haryana-punjab-since-2016-1874897-2021-11-09?utm_source=Partner_aff&utm_medium=Partner_aff&utm_campaign=Partner_aff&utm_id=Partner_aff )
recently recognized mosasaur was a fish-hunting beast
Scientists at the University of Cincinnati recognized another type of mosasaur—an 18-foot-long fish-eating beast that lived 80 million years prior.
UC associate teacher instructor Takuya Konishi and his understudy, UC graduate Alexander Willman, named the mosasaur Ectenosaurus everhartorum after scientists Mike and Pamela Everhart. The mosasaur occupied the Western Interior Seaway in what today is western Kansas.
The disclosure was reported for this present week in the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences.
The recently distinguished mosasaur checks just the second species in the sort Ectenosaurus.
“Mosasaurs in western Kansas have been all around inspected and well-informed. Those two variables make tall chances when you attempt to discover something new,” Konishi said.
Mosasaurs were gigantic marine reptiles, some as large as school transports. They possessed seas all throughout the planet during the Cretaceous time frame around the hour of Tyrannosaurus rex. On the off chance that Ectenosaurus clidastoides with its long, thin jaws looks like a gharial crocodile, Konishi said the new species is more like a bogus gharial crocodile with prominently blunter jaws.
Konishi, who instructs in the Biological Sciences Department of UC’s College of Arts and Sciences, first experienced the fossil in 2004 while functioning as an alumni understudy in systematics and development. Konishi was considering fossils of Platecarpus, an alternate sort of mosasaur away at Fort Hays State University’s Sternberg Museum of Natural History, when he perceived something odd around one example.
“It was anything but a platecarpus. The front facing bone over the eye attachment was any longer. The bones of Platecarpus ought to have had a more extensive triangle,” he said. “That was one indication.”
Konishi associated the example was a sort with ectenosaur, just a single types of which had been recognized. However, the teeth appeared to be all off-base. The currently unfilled attachments that would have contained the mosasaur’s sharp, bended teeth in the unidentified example would have stretched out around the front of its mouth, not at all like other perceived species that has an innocuous platform, the hard bulge at the front of the mouth.
For quite a long time, the fossils perplexed him.
“A few things simply stick to you and they’re difficult to give up,” he said.
Yet, the secret would need to stand by on the grounds that Konishi was occupied with completing his doctoral certificate and dispatching a scholastic vocation that would carry him to UC’s College of Arts and Sciences.
The first mosasaur fossils were found in the Netherlands 50 years before anybody utilized the expression “dinosaur.” Mosasaurs started to catch the country’s consideration after the Civil War when the country’s head scientistss, Othniel Charles Marsh and Edward Drinker Cope, started to examine Cretaceous limestone in Kansas in an organization that turned into an unpleasant public quarrel. From that point forward, Kansas has gotten widely acclaimed for mosasaur research.
Ages of specialists have come to Kansas to contemplate its examples, which are in plain view at galleries all throughout the planet.
“It’s a well known spot for mosasaur research. It’s very notable,” Konishi said. “So I figured I don’t need to be the person to put a stake. I’m certain somebody will get it. Yet, no one did.”
Ectenosaur is strange for what a small number of examples have been found in the class contrasted with other mosasaurs, Konishi said.
“In western Kansas we have more than 1,500 mosasaur examples. Out of those we can just discover one example each addressing these two types of ectenosaur,” Konishi said. “That is somewhat insane.”
At the point when Konishi affirmed with the Sternberg Museum that no different scientists were contemplating the example, he requested that they transport the fossils to UC. At the point when he opened the cautiously bubble-wrapped substance, his underlying feelings were affirmed.
“By then I had taken a gander at all the other known Platecarpus examples under the sun, so to speak. Furthermore, this example was particular from the others,” he said. “To me it was so self-evident.”
Simultaneously, Konishi’s understudy Willman asked about dealing with an exploration project. He got a UC Undergraduate STEM Experience award to assist with the ordered recognizable proof.
“I was past eager to be essential for the revelation,” Willman said.
The third creator on the investigation, Michael Caldwell, is an educator of science at the University of Alberta, Edmonton.
Willman delineated the fossils in meticulous detail to assist researchers with understanding the morphological contrasts that make the mosasaur extraordinary.
“I was extremely content with how he rejuvenated these wrecked bones,” Konishi said. “It helped present our defense exceptionally persuading to anybody that this is something new that warrants the foundation of another taxon.”
The specialists devoted the venture to the late Dale Russell, whose work has had a significant effect in North American mosasaur fossil science, Konishi said. In any case, they named the mosasaur for the Everharts, a Kansas couple who have gone through over 30 years offering their fossils to historical centers and driving examination field trips in the fossil-rich Smoky Hill Chalk.
“We’re as yet shortly of shock at the news. It’s exceptionally energizing,” Pamela Everhart said.
“It’s a significant privilege,” said Mike Everhart, creator of “Expanses of Kansas” about mosasaurs and other ancient life that possessed the Western Interior Seaway during the Cretaceous Period.
Mosasaurs are extremely uncommon to him, he said.
“The seas would not have been a protected spot for swimming in the Cretaceous,” he said. “Mosasaurs were the top hunter in the sea during those occasions.”
Boeing is as yet battling to fix the most recent starliner glitch on schedule for Launch
Boeing should enjoy some real success on the accomplishment of its since a long time ago deferred Starliner shuttle at this moment, yet the dispatch was canceled again last week. At that point, Boeing just said there was an issue with “sudden valve position signs,” however the degree of the issue is more serious than at first announced. Indeed, even with a few days of work, Boeing actually doesn’t have a clue why the valves are breaking down. In case there is no arrangement soon, Starliner could miss its dispatch window totally, moving the dispatch by something like a while.
The CST-100 Starliner is Boeing’s commitment to NASA’s Commercial Crew Program, which presently includes only one usable rocket: the SpaceX Dragon. Boeing appeared to be leading the pack for the initial not many years after it and SpaceX were granted agreements. The objective of Commercial Crew is to assemble vehicles that give NASA admittance to the International Space Station (ISS) without going through the Russians. SpaceX has conveyed, having now flown three ran missions to the ISS. Boeing, nonetheless, is as yet attempting to get Starliner going.
Boeing is chipping away at dispatching Orbital Flight Test 2 (OFT 2), which is a do-over of OFT 1. That dispatch fizzled in late 2019 when PC glitches caused the uncrewed space apparatus to miss its ISS rendezvous. NASA is naturally reluctant to put a group on the Starliner until it can finish this self-sufficient demo mission. That objective is looking significantly further away since we have more subtleties on last week’s cut short dispatch.
As indicated by NASA, 13 valves in the fuel framework were stuck in the shut situation as the dispatch drew nearer on August third. Boeing couldn’t get the valves open, nor figure out what made them close in any case. The shuttle and its Atlas V rocket were moved once more into the Vertical Integration Facility (VIF) where designers have spent the last week looking at the equipment. Starting yesterday, Boeing had figured out how to open seven of the 13 valves. The group is utilizing mechanical, electrical, and warm methods to get the valves open, however the underlying driver is as yet unclear.
NASA has said that it stays focused on working with Boeing on a dispatch plan, however that can just continue once the component behind the disappointment is perceived and moderated. Boeing doesn’t have a lot of time to sort it out, all things considered. In under about fourteen days, SpaceX will dispatch the CRS-23 payload mission to the ISS, and that shuttle will require a docking port. From that point onward, ULA will require ground assets to dispatch the NASA Lucy mission on an Atlas V rocket. SpaceX additionally has a run ISS dispatch in October, and that vessel will likewise require a free docking port. Boeing would in any case have a shot at a late 2021 flight, around two years after it was initially expecting to finish the orbital flight test.
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